OCCUPATION & WAGE GAP by GENDER

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • There are 104.262 M workers in America of which 44.4% are WOMEN whose Median Earnings are 82.1% of their MEN counterparts given virtually the SAME Occupations(s). All tables based on Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data, 2013.

  • Of the 5 General Occupational Categories (See T-1 for that listing) we found that:

    • Service Occupations have the greatest earning parity with WOMEN’s Median Weekly Earnings being 81.4% of MEN’s Weekly Med Weekly Earnings (T-1).

    • Management & Professional Occupations have the least Earnings parity of WOMEN to MEN. WOMEN Earn 72.1% of MEN’s Median Weekly Earnings (T-1).

    • There are more workers in the Mgt & Prof Occupations (40.1% of ALL workers than in any of the other Gen’l Occupations. Furthermore, 21,530 M (51.4%) of those workers are WOMEN (T-2).

    • There are the fewest workers in the Natural Resources, Construction & Maintenance Occupations with 10.340 M. ONLY 434,000 (4.2%) are WOMEN (T-2).

  • The greatest parity b/t WOMEN & MEN Earnings occurs with Counselors, Special Ed Teachers and Customer Service Reps with WOMEN being paid 99.4%, 96.6% & 96.4% of MEN’s earnings; See T-3. (As soon as we say HOORAY however, we realize that we’re celebrating W wages that are less than 100% of M’s! BOO! BOO!! BOO!!!)

  • The least parity of W to M Earnings occurs with 1st Line “Supes” of Housekeeping & Janitorial Services, Retail Salespersons & Sales and Related Occupations. W Earn 63.8%, 67.4% & 67.8% respectively of MEN’s earnings. See T-4. (OUTRAGEOUS! Can you imagine there are 14 Occupations [17% of ALL specific Occupations] where the W’s % of M’s Earnings is NOT EVEN 75% of M’s Earnings?)

  • The 3 occupations with the highest Wkly Earnings for WOMEN are Chief Execs ($1811), Pharmacists ($1802) and Lawyers, $1566. (See T-5).

  • The 3 Occupations with the lowest Wkly Earnings for WOMEN are Agricultural Workers ($352), Laundry & Dry Cleaning Workers ($360) and Combined Food Prep & Servicing Workers ($370).

  • Table 7 is our SURPRISE SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONAL TABLE by % of Workers and/or W% to M’s Median Wkly Earnings. While we can’t really give a TOP or BOTTOM 3 b/c it’s a matter of taste, we identified 17 Occupations where data required commenting. We hope that our kind readers will fill in the reasoning gaps where necessary.

    • Of the almost 85 Specific Occupations (See Appendix Table) ONLY 1 “Bakers” YES, BAKERS, had Weekly Median Earnings that were greater than MEN’s, ONLY 1! YES, again, it was ONLY BAKERS!?!?! SURPRISE!?

    • We were surprised at the # of occupations that had a small % of WOMEN workers (Engineers, Techs etc, with 16.3%; Personal Fin Advisors, 25.1%; Butchers etc with 25.7%; and Chief Execs, 27.2% [perhaps especially Chief Execs]; Lawyers with 34.8% and Physicians & Surgeons with 36.1% W). We were dismayed with the fact that Earnings parity of W to M is NO BETTER than 91% in any of the aforementioned Occupations. We thought b/c of the paucity of W in these Occupations that their Earnings may NOT ONLY be equal to MEN’s but perhaps greater! How can WOMEN be doing so poorly in so many Occupations?

    • On the other hand where WOMEN are so proliferous & dominate the landscape in many Occupations (such as in the Nursing & Related Occupations where they are from 87% to 89% of those workers; in the Education Adm workforce which is 64½% W; Biz Operation Specialists are 55.7% W; and Financial Mgrs with W being 54.4% of this Occupation. How can their male counterparts be earning from 10% to 30% more? How can this be? How can this be? How can WOMEN lose wage parity regardless of their Supply? SURPRISE!?

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics “Household Data, Annual Avgs of Median Weekly Earnings of Full Time Workers” (2013) by Occupation & Gender, 44.4% (46.29 M) of the 104.262 M US workers are WOMEN. Their median weekly earnings of $706 per wk ($36,712 per yr) is 82.1% of MEN’s Median Weekly Earnings ($860 per wk, $44,720 per yr). (Please note that at any level of our categorization of Occupations from the most General seen in T-1 to the most Specific Occupational list, Appendix Table, to qualify for inclusion, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) had to provide data on the # of M & W workers AND Weekly Median Earnings for both. If any one of those 4 pcs of datum was MISSING, the Occupation WAS NOT included in any of our tables. Hence, an occupation such as Construction Mgr which had M & F workers by the # and Weekly Earnings for M but NOT Weekly Earnings for W was excluded from ALL 8 of our tables).

Past the nuggets of the EXEC SUMMARY, we present a brief synthesis of Tables 1 & 2 below followed by Tables 1 – 7 in detailed data light. These tables are found on pgs 3 – 7. The last table (Appendix Table) is to be read with the likelihood of finding your Occupation or your child’s Occupational alternatives. If not discovered, it is b/c either the BLS didn’t classify it as you think of it or the 4 necessary pieces of datum needed for our tables (See above explanation) were not available. We hope you find the 1st page (Exec Summary) adequate so that you need not plough through the other pages. If data or self-destruction is your thing the 8 tables are available for your enjoyment.

Table 1 is a distribution of Occupations by Earnings & Gender. It is 5 most general categories of Occupations. It is organized so that the category with the greatest WOMEN to MEN earnings parity, SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, comes 1st and the category with least earnings parity, MANAGEMENT, PROFESSIONAL, ETC is 5th

  • WOMEN earn 81.44% MEN’s weekly earnings in Service Occupations. (They are 49.5% of all Service Occupations workers).

  • WOMEN earn 81.35% MEN’s weekly earnings in Sales & Office Occupations. (They are 60.6% of Sales & Office Occupations workers).

  • WOMEN earn 76.35% MEN’s weekly earnings in Natural Resources, Construction & Maintenance. (They are 4.2% of National Resources, Construction & Maintenance worker).

  • WOMEN earn 73.89% MEN’s weekly earnings in Production, Transportation & Material Movers. (They are 20.4% of Production, Transportation & Material Movers workers).

  • WOMEN earn 72.13% MEN’s weekly earnings in Management & Professional. (They are 51.4% of Management & Professional workers).

Table 2 uses data from Table 1 but rearranges the info to reflect the # of total workers in each occupational category, and the % & # of WOMEN workers.

  • 41,820,000 workers are employed in Management & Professional Occupations (51.4% or 21,530,000 are WOMEN).

  • 23,120,000 workers are employed in Sales & Office Occupations. (60.6% or 14,008,000 are WOMEN).

  • 15,053,000 workers are employed in Service Occupations. (49.5% or 7,456,000 are WOMEN).

  • 13,930,000 workers are employed in Production, Transportations & Material Moving. (20.4% or 2,840,000 are WOMEN).

  • 10,340,000 workers are employed in Natural Resources, Construction & Maintenance. (4.2% or 434,000 are WOMEN).

 

T-1: Median Wkly Earnings of FT Workers by Gen’l Occupation & Gender

Gen’l Occupation Classes

Total workers (000s)

% W workers

Median Wkly Earnings M dollars W dollars

W % of M’s Wages

MANAGEMENT, PROFESSIONAL, ETC

41,820

51.4

1349

973

72.13%

Mgmnt, Biz & Financial Operations

17,137

46.3

1412

1049

74.29%

 

Business & Financial Operations

5,635

56.8

1263

979

77.51%

Management & Occupations

11,501

41.2

1456

1103

75.76%

 

Professional & Related

24,683

55.1

1295

944

72.90%

 

Cmmnty & Social Service

1,913

60.5

930

808

86.88%

Architecture & Engineering

2,539

13.0

1403

1143

81.47%

Education, Training & Library

6,590

72.6

1091

888

81.39%

Life, Physical & Social Sciences

1,064

42.9

1271

1030

81.04%

Computer & Math

3,621

25.6

1452

1174

80.85%

Arts, Design, Ent, Sprts, & Media

1,510

43.0

1118

884

79.07%

Healthcare Practitioner & Tech

6,143

74.6

1312

994

75.76%

Legal Occupations

1,305

54.2

1764

1010

57.26%

 

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

15,053

49.5

555

452

81.44%

Food Preparing & Serving Related

4,140

47.2

437

400

91.53%

Healthcare Support

2,324

86.9

546

486

89.01%

Personal Care & Service

2,483

73.7

549

464

84.52%

Buldng & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance

3,421

33.4

505

417

82.57%

Protective Service

2,684

19.0

824

643

78.03%

 

SALES & OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

23,120

60.6

756

615

81.35%

Office & Administrative Support

13,744

72.8

673

628

93.31%

Sales & Related

9,376

42.7

835

566

67.78%

 

NATURAL RESORC, CNSTRCT & MAINTN

10,340

4.2

757

578

76.35%

Construction & Extractions

5,354

2.1

736

654

88.86%

Installation, Maintenance & Repair

4,268

4.2

824

710

86.17%

Farmng, Fishng & Forestry

720

20.0

472

368

77.97%

 

PROD,TRNSPRTN & MATERIAL MOVING

13,930

20.4

674

498

73.89%

Transportation & Material Moving

6,623

13.8

645

497

77.05%

Production

7,307

26.3

697

498

71.45%

T-2: FT Workers by Gen’l Occupation #s, Median Wkly Earnings & W% of M Wages

Gen’l Occupation Classes

Total workers (000s)

% W workers

Median Wkly Earnings M dollars W dollars

W % of M’s Wages

MANAGEMENT, PROFESSIONAL, ETC

41,820

51.4

1349

973

72.13%

SALES & OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

23,120

60.6

756

615

81.35%

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

15,053

49.5

555

452

81.44%

PROD,TRNSPRTN & MATERIAL MOVING

13,930

20.4

674

498

73.89%

NATURAL RESORC, CNSTRCT & MAINTN

10,340

4.2

757

578

76.35%

Table 3: The TOP 10 Occupations by Earnings Parity (W% of M Earnings)

RK

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M$$ W$$

W % of M earnings

 

Bakers

117

52.1%

488

524

107.38%

1

Counselors

569

68.7%

889

884

99.44%

2

Special Education Teachers

336

80.7%

977

944

96.62%

3

Customer Service Representatives

1615

66.1%

639

616

96.40%

4

Office Clerks, General

852

86.2%

620

596

96.13%

5

Packers & Packagers, Hand

331

55.0%

434

416

95.85%

6

Shipping, Receiving & Traffic Clerks

493

30.6%

547

524

95.80%

7

Teacher Assistants

571

87.7%

501

475

94.81%

8

Personal Care Aides

658

81.9%

470

445

94.68%

9

Emergency Medical Tec’cians & Paramedics

140

41.4%

832

785

94.35%

10

Electrical, Elect’nics & Electro Mech’cal Assemblers

125

48.8%

522

490

93.87%

Table 4: The BOTTOM 10 Occupations by Earnings Parity (W% of M Earnings)

RK

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M$$ W$$

W % of M earnings

1

1st line Sup’visors of Hse’keeping & Janitorial Wkrs

186

41.9%

801

511

63.80%

2

Retail Salespersons

1829

40.3%

719

485

67.45%

3

Sales & Related Occupations

9376

42.7%

835

566

67.78%

4

Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers & Weighers

650

32.5%

835

583

69.82%

5

Financial Managers

1127

54.4%

1518

1064

70.09%

6

Insurance Sales Agents

432

50.0%

1029

733

71.23%

7

Physicians & Surgeons

667

36.1%

2087

1497

71.73%

8

Education Administrators

698

64.5%

1543

1130

73.23%

9

Claims Adj, Appraisers, Examiners & Investigators

299

65.2%

1144

838

73.25%

10

Bus Operations Specialists, etc

179

61.5%

1226

899

73.33%

Table 5: The 10 Occupations (for WOMEN) that provide the Highest Weekly Salaries

RK

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M$$ W$$

W % of M earnings

1

Chief Executives

1050

27.2%

2266

1811

79.92%

2

Pharmacists

215

54.4%

2092

1802

86.14%

3

Lawyers

710

34.8%

1986

1566

78.85%

4

Computer & Info System Managers

570

28.6%

1769

1549

87.56%

5

Physicians & Surgeons

667

36.1%

2087

1497

71.73%

6

Software Dev’pers, Applications & Sys Software

1053

19.8%

1737

1370

78.87%

7

Management Analyst

547

41.9%

1614

1319

81.72%

8

Operations Research Analysts

119

52.9%

1569

1313

83.68%

9

Purchasing Managers

181

49.2%

1441

1290

89.52%

10

HR Managers

212

71.7%

1536

1240

80.73%

Table 6: The 10 Occupations (for WOMEN) that provide the Lowest Weekly Earnings

RK

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M$$ W$$

W % of M earnings

1

Miscellaneous Agricultural Workers

516

13.8%

447

352

78.75%

2

Laundry & Dry-Cleaning Workers

121

58.7%

425

360

84.71%

3

Combined Food Prep & Serving Wrks, inc Fast Fd

175

61.1%

413

370

89.59%

4

Cashiers

1350

69.0%

426

379

88.97%

5

Waiters & Waitresses

883

63.2%

449

400

89.09%

6

Packers & Packagers, Hand

331

55.0%

434

416

95.85%

7

Janitors & Building Cleaners

1537

27.4%

517

418

80.85%

8

Laborers and Freight, Stock & Material Movers, Hand

1277

17.3%

524

421

80.34%

9

Packaging & Filling Machine Operators & Tenders

296

53.7%

537

429

79.89%

10

Personal Care Aides

658

81.9%

470

445

94.68%

Table 7: Biggest Occupation Surprises by %W and/or W’s% of M’s Earnings by Occupations

 

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M$$ W$$

W % of M earnings

1

Retail Salespersons

1829

40.3%

719

485

67.45%

2

Financial Managers

1127

54.4%

1518

1064

70.09%

3

Physicians & Surgeons

667

36.1%

2087

1497

71.73%

4

Education Administrators

698

64.5%

1543

1130

73.23%

5

Bus Operations Specialists, etc

179

61.5%

1226

899

73.33%

6

Personal Financial Advisors

287

25.1%

1565

1149

73.42%

7

Sales Representatives, Services, etc

348

30.5%

1013

766

75.62%

8

Lawyers

710

34.8%

1986

1566

78.85%

9

Medical Scientists

131

55.7%

1430

1142

79.86%

10

Chief Executives

1050

27.2%

2266

1811

79.92%

11

Accountants & Auditors

1516

62.3%

1268

1029

81.15%

12

Postsecondary Teachers

893

47.5%

1338

1100

82.21%

13

Registered Nurses

2277

88.8%

1236

1086

87.86%

14

BUTCHERS & Other Meat, Poultry & Fish Processing Wrkrs

284

25.7%

525

476

90.67%

15

Eng. Technicians, except Drafters

361

16.3%

1027

934

90.94%

16

Nursing, Psychiatric & Home Health Aides

1393

86.6%

499

450

90.18%

17

BAKERS

117

52.1%

488

524

107.38%

Appendix Table: Median Wkly Earnings of FT Workers by Specific Occupation & Gender

Specific Occupation Category

TOT # of workers(000s)

% W

Median Wkly Earnings M dollars W dollars

W % of M earnings

Bakers

117

52.10%

488

524

107.38%

Counselors

569

68.70%

889

884

99.44%

Special Education Teachers

336

80.70%

977

944

96.62%

Customer Service Reps

1615

66.10%

639

616

96.40%

Office Clerks, General

852

86.20%

620

596

96.13%

Packers & Packagers, Hand

331

55.00%

434

416

95.85%

Shipping, Receiving & Traffic Clerks

493

30.60%

547

524

95.80%

Teacher Assistants

571

87.70%

501

475

94.81%

Personal Care Aides

658

81.90%

470

445

94.68%

Emergency Medical Tec’cians & Paramedics

140

41.40%

832

785

94.35%

Electrical, Elect’nics and Electro Mech’cal Assemblers

125

48.80%

522

490

93.87%

Recreation & Fitness Workers

213

57.70%

561

523

93.23%

Bus Drivers

339

43.40%

597

556

93.13%

Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, all other

323

20.40%

606

557

91.91%

Elementary & Middle School Teachers

2669

80.10%

1025

937

91.41%

Security Guards & Gaming Surveillance Officers

642

19.50%

549

500

91.07%

Eng. Technicians, Except Drafters

361

16.30%

1027

934

90.94%

Butchers & Other Meat, Poultry & Fish Processing Workers

284

25.70%

525

476

90.67%

Nursing, Psychiatric and Home Health Aides

1393

86.60%

499

450

90.18%

Combined Food Prep & Serving Wrks, inc fast fd

175

61.10%

413

370

89.59%

Biological Scientists

107

49.50%

1233

1104

89.54%

Purchasing Managers

181

49.20%

1441

1290

89.52%

Transp’tion Storgae & Dist. Managers

252

23.00%

1029

920

89.41%

Paralegals & Legal Assistants

337

85.20%

923

825

89.38%

Bookkeeping, Acc’ting & Auditing Clerks

804

87.30%

751

670

89.21%

Waiters & Waitresses

883

63.20%

449

400

89.09%

Cashiers

1350

69.00%

426

379

88.97%

Computer Support Specialists

474

28.30%

1019

901

88.42%

First-line Sup’visors of Off & Admn Supp Workers

1223

67.70%

846

748

88.42%

Registered Nurses

2277

88.80%

1236

1086

87.86%

Receptionists & information clerks

901

91.90%

600

527

87.83%

Secretaries and Admn Assistants

2233

94.60%

772

677

87.69%

Computer & Info System Managers

570

28.60%

1769

1549

87.56%

Clinical Lab Tech’gists & Tech’cians

307

73.60%

980

858

87.55%

Social & Comm. Service Managers

279

66.30%

1150

1004

87.30%

Postal Service Mail Carriers

277

36.50%

1012

878

86.76%

Medical & Health Service Managers

529

70.90%

1412

1224

86.69%

Chefs & Head Cooks

351

19.70%

589

510

86.59%

Pharmacists

215

54.40%

2092

1802

86.14%

Police & Sheriff’s Patrol Officers

682

13.00%

1032

881

85.37%

Laundry & Dry-Cleaning Workers

121

58.70%

425

360

84.71%

HR Workers

497

73.60%

1139

958

84.11%

Operations Research Analysts

119

52.90%

1569

1313

83.68%

Social Workers

636

79.70%

978

818

83.64%

Computer System Analysts

443

35.70%

1455

1216

83.57%

Dispatchers

247

56.70%

747

617

82.60%

Mkt Research Analyst and Mktg Specialists

190

57.90%

1171

967

82.58%

Postsecondary Teachers

893

47.50%

1338

1100

82.21%

Bailiffs, Correctional Officers & Jailers

418

28.70%

729

599

82.17%

Management Analyst

547

41.90%

1614

1319

81.72%

Purchasing Agents, Except Wh’sale, Rtl & Farm Prods

263

57.40%

1116

912

81.72%

Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents

357

58.50%

928

756

81.47%

Computer Programmers

438

24.20%

1428

1162

81.37%

Bartenders

207

52.70%

594

483

81.31%

Accountants & Auditors

1516

62.30%

1268

1029

81.15%

Production Workers, etc

866

27.30%

619

501

80.94%

Janitors & Building Cleaners

1537

27.40%

517

418

80.85%

HR Managers

212

71.70%

1536

1240

80.73%

Laborers and Freight, Stock & Material Movers, Hand

1277

17.30%

524

421

80.34%

Chief Executives

1050

27.20%

2266

1811

79.92%

Packaging & Filling Machine Operators & Tenders

296

53.70%

537

429

79.89%

Production, Planning & Expediting Clerks

272

54.40%

864

690

79.86%

Medical Scientists

131

55.70%

1430

1142

79.86%

Editors

112

52.70%

1239

988

79.74%

Designers

514

47.50%

1095

866

79.09%

Driver/Sales Workers & Truck Drivers

2588

4.10%

738

583

79.00%

Software Dev’pers, Applications & System Software

1053

19.80%

1737

1370

78.87%

Lawyers

710

34.80%

1986

1566

78.85%

Miscellaneous Agricultural Workers

516

13.80%

447

352

78.75%

First-line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers

2319

42.30%

778

612

78.66%

Food Service Managers

716

46.80%

801

620

77.40%

Sales Representatives, Services, etc

348

30.50%

1013

766

75.62%

Credit Counselors & Loan Officers

360

57.80%

1162

864

74.35%

Personal Financial Advisors

287

25.10%

1565

1149

73.42%

Property, Real Est & Comm. Association Managers

359

55.20%

1068

784

73.41%

Bus Operations Specialists, etc

179

61.50%

1226

899

73.33%

Claims adj, Appraisers, Examiners and Investigators

299

65.20%

1144

838

73.25%

Education Administrators

698

64.50%

1543

1130

73.23%

Physicians & Surgeons

667

36.10%

2087

1497

71.73%

Insurance Sales Agents

432

50.00%

1029

733

71.23%

Financial Managers

1127

54.40%

1518

1064

70.09%

Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers and Weighers

650

32.50%

835

583

69.82%

Sales & Related Occupations

9376

42.70%

835

566

67.78%

Retail Salespersons

1829

40.30%

719

485

67.45%

1st line Supervisors of Hse’keeping & Janitorial Workers

186

41.90%

801

511

63.80%

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    For over 24 years, University of Detroit Mercy Marketing Professor Michael Bernacchi, Ph.D., J.D, has produced "uNDER tHE mIKE-rOSCOPE", a newsletter discussing current "marketing and advertising¹s bends, trends & ends." A well-know fixture in Detroit and national media, UDM's marketing guru has made several appearances on CNN's "Talk Back Live," the Voice of America worldwide radio network (VOA), ABC, CBS, NBC, MSNBC and on the pages of Sports Illustrated, Time, TV Guide, the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post, to name a few. At University of Detroit Mercy, he has taught courses in Marketing Management, Consumer Behavior, Marketing Communications, Research and Corporate Social Responsibility and Sports and Entertainment Marketing. Michael Bernacchi can be reached at 313-993-1116 or bernacmd@udmercy.edu. Please appropriately attribute the following for their work on uNDER tHE mIKE-rOSCOPE: Yen Ju Lee Robert Rouse Vidhyasagar Natarajan Eric Baumgardner & Ian Young
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